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I teach these:
The saxophone was invented by Adolphe Sax in 1846.
The modern concert flute was invented by Theobald Boehm in 1847 as an improvement on earlier wooden models. Its cylindrical bore allows for more consistent intonation.
Also known as the "simple system" flute, this was the standard flute in Europe during the Classical era. The Boehm-system flute (see above right) replaced it in classical music, but this fine instrument continues to be a staple of Celtic music.
The tin whistle (or penny-whistle) is a fipple flute similar to a recorder, but it uses the same six-hole fingering system as a keyless "simple system" wooden flute. They were first mass-produced in 1840 in Manchester, England, by Robert Clarke's company.
The larger cousin of the pennywhistle, it makes a deep and haunting sound and requires a slightly different hand grip to cover the holes. It's different from a recorder in that it has six finger holes instead of eight, enabling easier Celtic ornamentation.
Native American Flute
This traditional indigenous American instrument plays in a minor pentatonic scale, and is constructed with two separate chambers and a block that serves to channel the air from one to the other. It is very easy to play and has a haunting, quiet tone.
(Though there were other indigenous North American flutes, the term "Native American flute" specifically refers to this instrument.)
- Julie T.
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